HSCT stands for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It was first used to treat cancer, but is now used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS).
The aim of HSCT treatment in MS is to ‘reset’ the immune system to stop it attacking the body.
You may have seen it in the news because some high profile celebrities with MS have had the treatment, including Hollywood actress Selma Blair.
What happens in HSCT treatment?
First, chemotherapy is given to the patient via an infusion in the vein to stimulate the production of stem cells in the body. This usually takes up to 10 days. The extra stem cells are then harvested from the blood and stored.
The patient then spends some time in hospital while they are given powerful chemotherapy which kills off much of their immune system. The stored stem cells are then reintroduced to the patient’s body. At this point, due to having a much weakened immune system, they are at very high risk of infection and cannot leave the hospital, are kept in isolation, and are often given antibiotics.
The hospital stay can last for a long time while the immune system is rebuilding itself – anywhere from between 10 to 160 days. Within three to six months, the immune system should gradually rebuild itself.
Who is eligible?
You can get HSCT on the NHS, but only if you meet very specific criteria.
Generally, current evidence says that the treatment works best for those who are under 45 and have relapsing MS, have had it less than 10 years, and have an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 5.5 or less.
There must be signs that the condition is active, meaning there must have been two relapses within the last 12 months, despite the person having taken disease-modifying treatment.
If you are looking for more information or support surrounding HSCT, there are plenty of Facebook communities that may be able to help...
Alternatively, you can call the MS-UK Helpline free on 0800 783 0518.
MS Clinical Nurse Practitioner Miranda Olding reveals the different treatment options for this common MS symptom
Spasticity, otherwise known as a tightening or stiffness of the muscle, is due to increased muscle tone and exaggerated response to muscle stretch. It is a common multiple sclerosis (MS) symptom and can affect the way we function, such as walking and posture. In addition, it can increase fatigue and cause pain. Unmanaged, it can lead to permanently shortened muscles called contractures and can affect daily living.
Spasticity also refers to involuntary muscle contractions or sudden movements, which range from a mild feeling of tightness, to severe, painful spasms, often of the legs. Here we focus on the problem of constant stiffness.
Treatment of spasticity is ideally done with the person with MS at the centre of a multidisciplinary team, with neuro physiotherapist, occupational therapist (OT), MS nurse, any relevant consultant, and possibly wheelchair services all liaising with each other.
The first thing to be aware of is that anything that is bothering the body can trigger or exacerbate spasticity in MS, so before medication, these 'trigger factors' need to be dealt with. They include, but are not limited to, infection, constipation, urinary retention, sore skin or pressure areas, anything that pinches, rubs or chafes, increased emotional stress and pain.
Muscle relaxant medication
The key with all muscle relaxants is to start low and go slow. You can even cut tablets in half with a tablet cutter from a pharmacy and start with a smaller dose. The idea is that by gradually increasing it every few days, you find a dose which reduces the problem, without causing too many side effects. The first people usually try is baclofen, and the most common side effects are drowsiness, or feeling weak. Because MS involves both stiffness and weakness in the muscles, you can find that a degree of stiffness is needed to maintain the strength needed for standing, so it can be a fine balance.
NICE guidelines recommend gabapentin as the next treatment to try if baclofen is not right for you. This is often used for nerve pain in MS, but also has a muscle relaxant effect. However, some people find the sedating side effects, or the fact that they are putting on weight, too difficult.
Another muscle relaxant that can be tried, which is less sedating, is tizanidine. But you will need a blood test before and for the first three months of treatment to check that your liver is coping and is not being harmed.
Occasionally, an older muscle relaxant, dantrolene, is tried. Diazepam (valium) is also effective as a short term muscle relaxant, but it is easy to become dependent on this. Clonazepam can also be tried.
When just a couple of defined muscles are causing the problems, botulinum toxin (botox) can be very effective when injected to paralyze these muscles. This needs to be repeated around every three months.
There has been evidence for some time that components of the cannabis plant can help some people with MS spasticity and pain. Sativex, the cannabis-derived medicine, is licensed to treat spasticity in people with MS, and is now available on NHS prescription from a specialist doctor, so speak to your neurologist or MS nurse to find out more. It is still illegal to possess this drug if you do not have a prescription.
CBD oil is a cannabis-based product that contains none of the psychoactive component, TCH, and so is legal for anyone to use. In studies where there was evidence of effectiveness, doses ranged from 0.8 to 1.8mg, taken between 2-4 times per day. The easiest way to control the dose is to take it in liquid form, and start with one drop under the tongue, then increase as necessary.
If other medications aren’t proving effective, a referral can be made to be seen in a specialist spasticity clinic, where a baclofen pump can be considered. This involves a tiny dose of baclofen being delivered straight to the spinal column via a small plastic tube, fitted to a pump, about the size of a shoe polish tin, which is inserted just under the skin in the abdomen. As the dose is so small, people have a lot less side effects than with tablets.
The way that you sit and lie in bed is important to break up the pattern of tight muscles with MS spasticity. However, this is something a physio or occupational therapists (OTs) can help with. OTs can also assist with night time splints to stretch out hands that have become very tight and to help ensure that all seating and equipment is supportive.
Keeping a full range of motion is important. Start by seeing a neuro-physio, and then keep things going with exercise. Everybody should be able to do some exercise or stretching, whether this is attending a regular exercise or yoga class, using regular or assisted gym equipment, including from a wheelchair, or even just passive stretching with a helper. A resource for this, 'Stretching with a helper' can be downloaded here https://bit.ly/2rrqHFu
Exercise not only helps to stretch out tight muscles, but also to reduce spasticity and spasm, boost fitness and lift mood.
Cathy Howard updates us on the next stage of the statins trial
I was up early again, which was just as well because parking was an absolute nightmare at the station! When we got to UCL Queens Square Institute of Neurology my appointment hadn’t been logged on their computer, so John and I had to wait for about an hour and a half to allow for my records to be released and my prescription to be authorised and filled at the pharmacy. We consoled ourselves with lunch and coffee at a local Italian restaurant.
Once the appointment resumed the lovely nurse Sarah looked after me again. She took the remainder of my original prescribed statin/placebo and replaced it with 2 new bottles and a six-month diary. She took blood and my blood pressure, and Dr Tom Williams noted some headaches and nausea I’d experienced during the first month. He also checked my lungs and heart. As long as these blood tests are ok, I can start to take two tablets per day increasing from one. I was able to collect a CD-Rom with my MRI scan on. So excited as it’s been a long time since I last had one done.
As long as my GP is happy, I can have my next lot of blood tests, at the end of November or the start of December at my local surgery. A few days afterwards I’ll get a phone call at home from one of the research team to ask me a few questions. I’ll let you know how it all goes.
MSer Cathy Howard updates us on the next stage of the statins trial
I was up with the lark again and even earlier than my last appointment! I got to UCL Queens Square Institute of Neurology almost an hour early, but I’d much rather be early than late.
A lovely nurse called Sarah took us through to the same area we were in last time and got me my second coffee of the day. She also gave me a Baseline worksheet with questions about how my MS currently affects me physically and mentally.
Dr Nevin John explained the day’s process, went through reams of paperwork with me and I signed five more informed consent forms for sub-studies. Don’t think of the trees!
Then the tests began. The Dr who administered those was very thorough and put me through a battery of sight, memory and manual dexterity tests, as well as a comprehensive neurological test. Records were taken after each part of each test.
I completed another walking test with a mobile phone with the MSteps app attached to my arm.
I had six lots of blood taken by another lovely nurse and a cannula inserted for contrast dye to be given part way through the lengthy MRI scan. I have some anxiety issues with MRIs so my GP kindly prescribed me diazepam as a sedative.
The last part of my day was 45 minutes of MRI scans. I estimate I had about 15 separate scans of varying durations. I was asked if I’d like some music whilst in the scanner, and I thought – well, I was an 80s teenager, so Madonna would be perfect. Although I couldn’t hear a lot of it whilst the bangs, clicks and dings were going on, when there were quieter periods, I was Vogueing (in my head) and being a strutting Material Girl! The technician who completed the scans will let me have a copy of the scan at my next appointment. Yay! It means I’ll be able to discuss it with my neurologist Dr Giles Elrington next time I see him. I haven’t had an MRI since my diagnosis, so I’m quite excited about that.
I was given my statin/placebo with a diary to keep updated. One tablet a night for a month. My next appointment is on 24 September. Bring it on!
Healthcare services have been failing people with neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis (MS) for far too long. That’s a fact. The number of people living with neurological conditions in England is rising and will continue to increase. But, for a number of years now, neurology has not been a national priority for the NHS. Research shows that those living with progressive neurological conditions are experiencing delays in diagnosis and treatment, fragmented and uncoordinated services, limited availability of neuro-specialist rehab and reablement and a lack of psycho–social support.
This inequality is simply not fair.
The NHS RightCare Toolkit for Progressive Neurological Conditions has been developed to help change that and ensure people living with brain and nerve conditions like MS, Parkinson’s and Motor Neurone Disease (MND) get the care and support they need and deserve.
Seven charities (MS Trust, MS Society, Parkinson’s UK, MND Association, Sue Ryder, MSA Trust and PSP Association) joined forces with NHS experts to produce the toolkit. The hope is that Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) will take full advantage of this unique opportunity; that they will use the practical, clear and innovative guidance the toolkit provides to tackle some of the big challenges people with these conditions face and ultimately improve healthcare services for this group, now and in the future.
If implemented in the right way, the numbers speak for themselves: up to 2,500 emergency admissions to hospital a year could be avoided for patients with these conditions as a result, with up to £10 million freed up to fund improved services.
So what does this mean for people with MS? The toolkit outlines four priorities that need addressing in MS care: improving the efficiency of disease modifying drug management, better use of data and technology to free up the valuable time of MS specialists, holistic support for people with advanced MS, and more MS specialists from different areas working together to provide joined-up care.
MS health professionals do an incredible job with the resources at their disposal and we know that many services are already delivering high quality care - the toolkit has real-life examples of best practice from across the country. But we want to help all areas reach the same high standard and make this best practice a reality for all. We will work closely with the other charities involved to support efforts to see the toolkit implemented effectively, with the shared aim of improving care for everyone living with a progressive neurological condition in England.
This blog has kindly been written by the MS Trust. To find out more about them visit the MS Trust website or if you’re living with MS and would like to share your experiences of healthcare, please get in touch with the MS Trust at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hi, I’m Cathy Howard, I’m 51 and have secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). I was originally diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS in 1998 at the age of 30 and I later took ill-health retirement from work in early 2015.
I use two sticks to walk short distances, or a wheelchair or scooter if I’m going out. I applied for the Simvastatin trial as I was conscious that apart from some fundraising for MS Society and MS-UK over the years, I’ve never really done a great deal for others with multiple sclerosis (MS).
The MS-STAT2 trial is a double-blind study, which means that I don’t know whether I’ll be taking Simvastatin or a placebo, and neither do the Drs who administer and regulate it. To be honest, although it would be a bonus to me if I took the drug and it worked, I’ll be happy just participating. I will be sharing my experience of participating in the trial through regular blog posts on the MS-UK blog, so watch this space!
Today is my screening day appointment (19 August 2019). I got up ridiculously early because my husband John was stressed about us getting the train with booked assistance for me in my wheelchair. Bleary-eyed we head out to the station. I was eager for my first coffee of the day.
The train was on time and we got to UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology in London about 45 minutes early. Dr Tom Williams, MS Clinical Research Fellow, came to meet us and escorted us through the rabbit warren of corridors to the trial room. Here I had my second cup of coffee and I’m started to feel awake.
Tom introduced Dr Nevin John, MS Medical Clinical Research Fellow, who is also part of the study. Nevin advised me about the trial, what to expect and possible side effects of statins. He asked me questions, completed forms based on my replies, and requested for me initial consent forms. There is so much paperwork and record-keeping involved!
I then had a basic physical examination, including blood pressure and blood oxygen levels, and my heart and breathing listened too. My height and weight were checked and I had various vials of blood taken for testing.
I also agreed to take part in a brain oxygen study and mSteps smartphone analysis. I was wired up to the brain oxygen study machine and computer and baseline readings were taken. Then I had three separate minutes to say as many words as I can that start with a selected letter. Not as easy as you may think! From the problems I had, I expect I’ve got very little oxygen reaching my brain!
An app is being developed to accurately record walking distance and speed etc. I had a mobile phone with the app on it strapped to my arm and was asked to walk short distances. This also served for the walking part of the MS-STAT2 screening process.
All in all, it was a very interesting appointment. I was completely exhausted by the time I got home but felt like I’d actually done something productive and I’m smiling as I write this! This is it for now, but I’ll update you all on the next part of my journey very soon!
Issue 114 of New Pathways magazine is out now. In this jam-packed edition, we take a look at the recent changes that could affect those of you who take CBD oil, on page 12. We also ask ourselves “Am I having a relapse?” Whether you’re newly diagnosed or have been living with MS for years, there will come a time when you will ask yourself this question, to find out more turn to page 39.
Page 21 offers some helpful advice to those who have found themselves caring for a friend or loved one and don’t know where to start when it comes to finding support.
Louise Willis MS-UK Counsellor talks about managing fatigue and how spoon theory can help you manage and explain it to others on page 28.
MSer and feature writer Ian Cook investigates if magnets can help multiple sclerosis in Cook’s Report Revisited on page 19.
Mary Wilson, #5 Para-Badminton player in the world, reveals her hopes of representing Team GB in Tokyo 2020 Paralympics on page 24, and discover how music therapy could help your MS on page 23.
In addition, don’t forget to read all the latest news and real life stories from MSers living life to the full and why not give our tasty free recipe a try!
About New Pathways
New Pathways magazine is a truly community led publication written by people with MS for people with MS. Each issue offers a variety of information on drugs, complementary therapies and symptom management, plus all the latest news and research and your amazing real life stories.
To subscribe, visit www.ms-uk.org/NewPathways, or call 0800 783 0518. Audio, plain text and digital versions of the magazine are available on request, simply call 01206 226500 and let us know your requirements.
The All Wales Medicines Strategy Group (AWMSG) are seeking the views of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and carers about new medicines it will consider recommending for use in NHS Wales, such as fingolimod (Gilenya), to treat MS in paediatric patients.
They would like you to share with them what it is like to live with MS or to care for someone who has it, and by contributing you will provide invaluable information about patient and carer needs.
In addition, they will be asking clinical experts to give their views and the medical facts. All of this information combined will give a really good insight into the real effects MS has on patients and carers and help inform the drug approval process. You are not expected to have all the answers, but anything you can share will be incredibly helpful.
If you would like to share your experience download the questionnaire to complete and send it to the address below by the 18 March 2019:
All Wales Therapeutics & Toxicology Centre
University Hospital Llandough
Penlan Road, Llandough
Vale of Glamorgan
Alternatively you can fill out the questionnaire here. All information shared with AWMSG will be kept confidential.
AWMSG is meeting on 15 May 2019. At the meeting the group’s lay member will summarise all comments from patients and carers, and patient organisations. Only AWTTC and committee members will read the completed questionnaires.
If you would like more information, or help with completing the questionnaire, please call 02920 716900 or email AWTTC@wales.nhs.uk.
In her latest blog, MSer Joanna talks about her first round of Lemtrada and reveals what made recovery easier for her.
Back in June 2018, I had my first round of Lemtrada. Here’s all the things I wish I’d been told beforehand!
Drink as much water as possible, and I'm talking in excess of 3 litres a day. Take cordial to make it easier to drink. Especially as when that awful steroid taste gets in your mouth, water is almost unbearable. Keep asking the nurses for top ups. It helped keep my body temperature and blood pressure down, and held any headaches at bay.
2. Mint imperials are your friend!
That steroid taste is awful during the infusion, but does go afterwards. Mint imperials helped a lot. Take a couple of bags with you. You won't regret it.
3. Get outside
I found it helped if I could get out in the fresh air. You're not bedbound during your stay. Stick around during your infusion, but it helps to get outside even just for half an hour at some point that's convenient.
4. Keep busy
Some days go quicker than others but there's only so much of the comings and goings on the ward that you can watch before you need something else. Watch that series you've been meaning to watch on Netflix, write someone a letter, or do a crossword.
5. Try and retain normality
Every morning I had a shower and did my hair and make-up. Having a bit of a routine made me feel normal. Keep this up during your recovery too. It really does help your mental health.
6. Steroid crash
I only took steroids on day 1 to 3 of my infusion. Because I hadn't had steroids before the Lemtrada, my body had a hissy fit. You might have some kind of emotional crash. Just to add insult to injury, you'll probably break out in what looks like hives. Don't touch them. It's not that itchy unless you make that fatal, first scratch.
7. Don't suffer in silence
Us MSers are used to putting on a brave face. We rarely feel 100% but for the most part we shrug it off. But you do not need to be superman or woman when you're in hospital. Have a rash? Accept the IV piriton. Have a tight chest? Take the nebuliser. Nobody's going to call you a hero for soldiering through. They'll probably say you're stupid if you do that!
Ask all the questions. Continue to do so when you come out. Use the #Lemtrada hashtag on social media to find other people in your shoes. If you're in the UK, join the Lemtrada group on Facebook. Keep on learning and talking to other people that "get it".
9. Plan ahead
The last thing you'll want to do when you get out is go to the supermarket. You'll think you can, but after 20 minutes you'll probably realise it's the worst idea of your life. Whilst in hospital, get ahead of the game and schedule a home delivery.
Rest. You're going to have good and bad days. You might feel like you're having a "pseudo relapse" with every symptom you've ever had flaring to it's worst. You'll have a good day then pay for it the following day. Be gentle on yourself. It's not a miracle cure, you won't suddenly be OK overnight. Things might take a while. But it'll be worth it.
You can read more from Joanna on her blog ms-understood.com
I am thrilled to share a sneak peak into the latest issue of New Pathways magazine, which is out now!
Our cover star this issue is MSer and HR Specialist Rebecca Armstrong, who discusses being your own boss and taking a step into self-employment on page 16.
On page 24-25, wellness coach and Director of Work.Live.Thrive Zoe Flint discusses how relaxation can help boost your immune and central nervous systems. This feature all about mindfulness for MS shares Zoe's insights and her top 5 things to get your started.
Also, MSer and Feature Writer Ian Cook reveals his first-hand experience of becoming a carer. Ian says, 'It may sound strange to say this but I believe being disabled is, in many ways, the perfect qualification to care for another disabled person.' Read the full article on page 12, and don't forget to check out his 'revisited' article on page 42 all about Shopmobility.
Fats have once again been dominating the news of late, so we asked MSer and Nutritional Science Researcher Sharon Peck to reveal the truth and explain what we really need to know on page 19. We also take a look at the natural remedies lurking in the back of your kitchen cupboard that could help relieve MS symptoms on page 18.
If you would like to see something specific in New Pathways please email me and let me know your thoughts or feedback.
Editor, New Pathways